In 1939 Hitler sent the Third German Antarctic Expedition to chart the coast of Queen Maude Land. Nazi flags and symbols were distributed along the coast. In response President Roosevelt directed Admiral Byrd to lead the U.S. Antarctic Service, the first of Byrd’s expeditions to receive federal funding. Bases were established on the Palmer Peninsula and Ross Ice Shelf and extensive mapping and scientific research were carried out. American flags and benchmarks were left throughout the territory.